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Aluminium(aluminuminAmericanandCanadian English) is achemical elementwith thesymbolAlandatomic number13. It is a silvery-white, soft,non-magneticandductilemetalin theboron group. By mass, aluminium makes up about 8% of theEarth's crust; it is the third most abundant element afteroxygenandsiliconand the most abundant metal in the crust, though it is less common in the mantle below. The chieforeof aluminium isbauxite. Aluminium metal is highly reactive, such thatnative specimensare rare and limited to extremereducingenvironments. Instead, it is found combined in over 270 differentminerals.
Aluminium is remarkable for its lowdensityand its ability to resistcorrosionthrough the phenomenon ofpassivation. Aluminium and itsalloysare vital to theaerospaceindustryand important intransportationand building industries, such as building facades and window frames.Theoxidesandsulfatesare the most useful compounds of aluminium.
Despite its prevalence in the environment, no known form of life uses aluminiumsaltsmetabolically, but aluminium is well tolerated by plants and animals.Because of these salts' abundance, the potential for a biological role for them is of continuing interest, and studies continue.
Inmetallurgy,stainless steel,also known asinox steelorinoxfrom Frenchinoxydable(inoxidizable), is asteelalloy, with a minimum of 11%chromiumcontentby massand a maximum of 1.2%carbonby mass.
Stainless steels are most notable for theircorrosion resistance, which increases with increasing chromium content. Additions ofmolybdenumincreases corrosion resistance in reducing acids and against pitting attack in chloride solutions. Thus, there are numerous grades of stainless steel with varying chromium and molybdenum contents to suit the environment the alloy must endure. Resistance to corrosion and staining, low maintenance, and familiar luster make stainless steel an ideal material for many applications where both the strength of steel and corrosion resistance are required.
Stainless steel is rolled intosheets, plates, bars, wire, and tubing to be used in:cookware,cutlery,surgical instruments,major appliances; construction material in large buildings, such as theChrysler Building; industrial equipment (for example, inpaper mills,chemical plants,water treatment); and storage tanks and tankers for chemicals and food products (for example,chemical tankersandroad tankers). Corrosion resistance, the ease with which it can be steam cleaned and sterilized, and unnecessary need for surface coatings has also influenced the use of stainless steel incommercial kitchensand food processing plants.
Mild steel (iron containing a small percentage of carbon, strong and tough but not readily tempered), also known as plain-carbon steel and low-carbon steel, is now the most common form of steel because its price is relatively low while it provides material properties that are acceptable for many applications. Mild steel contains approximately 0.05–0.30% carbonmaking it malleable and ductile. Mild steel has a relatively low tensile strength, but it is cheap and easy to form; surface hardness can be increased throughcarburizing.
In applications where large cross-sections are used to minimize deflection, failure by yield is not a risk so low-carbon steels are the best choice, for example asstructural steel. The density of mild steel is approximately 7.85g/cm3(7850kg/m3or 0.284lb/in3)and theYoung's modulusis 200GPa (29,000ksi).
Low-carbon steels displayyield-point runoutwhere the material has twoyield points. The first yield point (or upper yield point) is higher than the second and the yield drops dramatically after the upper yield point. If a low-carbon steel is only stressed to some point between the upper and lower yield point then the surface developsLüder bands.Low-carbon steels contain less carbon than other steels and are easier to cold-form, making them easier to handle